Frank Purcell is a career process design engineer and has previously provided comment to The UFO Trail. He holds degrees in Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Science, Control Systems Engineering and Computer Science.
He recently provided The UFO Trail with the following comments on the work of David Jacobs:
My understanding of Jacobs’ thesis is that alien abductions are real, and moreover that all abductions are centered on an alien agenda of making human/alien hybrids. The aliens are purportedly introducing the hybrids into society with the long term intent of take-over from within. At the same time, the aliens remain dominant with more power than the hybrids they’ve created.I asked Frank about how one might frame the logistics of so many supposed people literally being abducted.
I’m skeptical for these reasons:
1) There is no assurance that hypnosis as administered by Jacobs is professionally done. Jacobs is by training a historian and not a psychologist or scientist. He has done hypnosis on about 150 people that include, what he thinks, are 1100 abduction events. He readily admits that when he began hypnosis of subjects that he didn’t know what he was doing. He has said nothing yet to convince me that he somehow now knows what he is doing.
He admits being selective in deciding what is true and what isn’t from abductee reports. Truth is defined by him as consistency with what he or others (Hopkins) have heard from the abductees. Things reported consistent with other reports are taken as factual; things that are outliers are discarded, or not held to be true until collaboration is established with additional reports. He does allow for progression of things reported, such as the growth of hybrids to maturity, by consistency of the reports.
2) I know little of genealogy and defer to experts in that area. As far as I know it’s impossible to cross breed an elephant with a dog. If this is not an obstacle to the aliens because of their advanced technology, why then do they even bother with human DNA and not just directly engineer the results they want from either their own or from the human species?
3) The abduction count is really unknown. It could be very low to non-existent. Estimated ranges in ‘Alien Discussions’ are between 8/10,000 and 200/10,000. The higher number is based on what most scientists consider to be invalid (and far too high) extrapolations of a Roper poll.
4) The credibility of the aliens themselves (granting that they even exist) is suspect; what is supposedly learned from professed abductees as told to them by the aliens is suspect. We have almost unanimous reports that aliens are deceptive or misleading while the abductee is captured. Comments from supposed abductees indicate misleading or frivolous comments from aliens in response to straightforward questions. The anecdotal data indicates that aliens are at best secretive and at worst, dishonest. Moreover, if aliens have the ability to mentally control subjects they take, as Jacobs asserts, they could be programming into the subjects whatever disinformation they choose. Presumably, the aliens are working together and communicating among themselves. They could, for their own reasons, be inserting consistent and false memories in the abductees. I don’t know of any way to sort this out. We have ample data showing that aliens are furtive when reportedly observed on the ground outside of their saucers. Whatever their true agenda is, granting that they even have one, it seems doubtful that anyone, including Jacobs, has figured it out.
But the fifth reason, below, seems the most compelling for discarding the hypothesis altogether: there is a huge mismatch between the rate of world population growth and the maximum reasonable introduction of hybrids into the general populace.
5) The world population has been increasing by 78 million people per year, linearly, from 1960 through 2005 (R square for the data fit is 0.996).
If we use an abduction rate of 8/10,000 people (Miller, p. 232, Alien Abductions) in the 45 years from 1960 through 2005, there were 5.16 million abductions, or 114,700 abductions per year. Most of these abductions were repeats (by Jacobs own data, 1100 abductions for 150 people). If we arbitrarily assume 100 hybrids produced per person abducted, we get at most 160,000 hybrids introduced into the general populace per year. That is 0.2 % of the overall population growth, and only 0.002% of the total population. While a case might be made that a few of these hybrids are designated for positions of power (political office), that seems to be special pleading and it also does nothing to support the idea of biological takeover from within. The analysis above can be off by 2 orders of magnitude yet still make the case that Jacobs’ hypothesis utterly fails.
"The high estimate of abduction rate, of 200/10,000 by the Roper poll," he replied, "would put 140 million saucers into the sky over a 45 year span, or around 3 million per year."
Considering said Roper poll only addressed the number of Americans allegedly being abducted, suffice it to say that would be a lot of air traffic over the US.
Dr. Tyler Kokjohn
Dr. Tyler Kokjohn is a Professor of Microbiology at the Midwestern University Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine. He is active in many projects, has previously provided work for The UFO Trail and maintains an informative YouTube channel.
He recently provided The UFO Trail with the following commentary on points concerning the work and statements of Dr. Jacobs:
Genetic technology offers the potential to confirm or refute explanatory hypotheses of the alien abduction mystery
DNA analysis methods have advanced to a point in which it is now feasible to determine the base sequences of complete genomes. The majority of completely sequenced organisms are microbes, but the list is expanding rapidly. The human genome sequence, over 3 billion base pairs, was completed roughly 10 years ago and is publicly accessible on the world wide web. The complete human genomic sequence and several sophisticated computer programs for its analysis are freely available to all. Investigators now have the opportunity to answer conclusively the questions involving genetics that would have been completely impossible to approach even ten years ago. Unfortunately, few abduction investigators have attempted to use these powerful tools.
Would genomic sequencing work require millions of dollars in funding to accomplish?
The original Human Genome Project required 13 years to carry out and required millions of dollars to support the direct sequencing efforts of multiple laboratories. At first glance, Lloyd Pye’s work with the Starchild skull would seem to confirm the idea that conducting genomic sequencing projects demands millions of dollars in funding. Clearly, some projects are expensive. Mr. Pye has undertaken one of the most technically difficult sequencing efforts ever attempted and it does seem likely to be costly. His investigation will require extracting DNA from bone samples estimated to be centuries old that are likely to have been contaminated as a consequence of handling and storage conditions. Any DNA recovered is probably going to be fragmented and harbor high levels of chemically degraded base sequences that may produce erroneous results. Assembling an authentic Starchild genomic sequence while avoiding misleading artifacts due to unavoidable age-related degradation and contamination with human material will be challenging and time-consuming. However, the complexity and unique challenges of the Starchild project makes it an unreliable gauge of the cost requirements for other genomic sequencing analyses using totally different sample sources.
Obtaining complete genomic sequences will not necessarily force investigators to raise millions of dollars. Today the costs estimates for such a project vary from $50,000 [L. Bonetta, Cell 141(6):917-919, 2010] to around $5,000 USD. In fact, it is hard to estimate the lowest price available at this time since companies now tout technologies yielding complete genome sequences in a single day for under $1,000. The thousand-dollar cost level represents a point at which genomic data might begin to be used on a routine basis in medical practice.
Other powerful approaches to acquire genetic evidence exist
Genomic sequence analysis is one approach to the problem, but it is important to bear in mind that far less costly alternative techniques to analyze DNA trace evidence are now available. These methods are used on a routine basis to establish paternity, identify human remains and settle a host of other legal issues. The extraordinary power of the methods is well illustrated by the story of a sailor killed in the attack on Pearl Harbor whose remains were definitively identified sixty-eight years later using a sample of his DNA.
The DNA source? Letters home sent in envelopes he had sealed by licking.
The development of methods able to reliably attribute the origins of DNA traces present in crime scene samples is now challenging common notions of faith in the justice system. DNA testing of evidence collected for criminal cases instigated through the efforts of The Innocence Project has resulted in the exoneration of 289 imprisoned persons in the U.S., including 17 who were on death row.
Is the difficult and challenging forensic approach to evidence collection even necessary?
It now seems there may be another, far easier route to clinching corroborating genetic evidence. A clandestine alien abduction program involving the involuntary participation of humans and callous disregard for their autonomy and dignity as described by Dr. Jacobs seems obviously nefarious. Consequently, abduction researchers would seem to need techniques like those used by criminal investigators to uncover evidence and build a case. But the situation may have changed completely with the recent pronouncement by one abduction researcher that she knows human-alien genetic hybrids personally. Obviously, such individuals represent the ideal subjects to corroborate the hypothesis of alien genetic adulteration of humans. An analysis could be done quite cheaply using the services companies like 23andMe provide for ancestry testing based on patterns of short terminal repeats in DNA. The procedure is simple; order a kit, spit into the tube, seal it and mail to the company. Results will be available within two to three weeks.
Are the differences between ‘human stage’ entities and authentic humans so subtle it will be impossible to distinguish them?
If they are human in every way except for sleep cycle and ability to control others it would seem so. That makes it critical for Dr. Jacobs to search his records for cases in which he has detected extra gestational unit pregnancies to seek any genetic evidence he can find of the putative earlier stage hybrids (with potentially great genetic distance from humans) he described in The Threat.
But there may be other means to recognize even those individuals and confirm their unusual attributes. Psychic (psi) abilities are uncommon or extremely weak in most persons. But these almost-human entities would seem likely to score high in assessments of telepathic ability like the Ganzfeld test. Perhaps they won’t cooperate. In that event, investigators might look at electroencephalogram (EEG) traces or subject them to functional imaging procedures that follow brain blood flow or glucose consumption in response to stimulation. Simply identifying one individual with authentic, high level psi abilities and discovering the brain region(s) enabling such capacities would create a sensation.
Looking at gene sequences is important, but it may not provide the whole story. Humans and chimpanzees are 95% identical (or greater) at the gene level. What is it that makes the two species so different? Part of it lies in variations in precisely how, when and where the genes are expressed. It is now possible to detect and quantify those differences directly. Perhaps such techniques could reveal the alterations in almost-human entities.
What if the aliens don’t even have DNA?
Combined with the assertion that the latest phase of hybrids are human in every way, it would seem to enormously complicate the notion that this is a program of genetic colonization.
“When people say they’ve had sex with aliens, with grey aliens, it can’t be true.”
Given the reported lack of external genitalia, that would seem to be obvious. However, the lack of knowledge here should prompt a degree of caution. So, what have these individuals experienced? The aliens may have no DNA, but if physical encounters have taken place between aliens and/or hybrids with these persons, important evidence might be discoverable. Informational polymers may encompass more than the RNA and DNA familiar to biologists today. Scientists have recently taken the first steps toward creating an alternative means to manage genetic information (G. F. Joyce, Science 336:307-308, 2012). Perhaps the reported sexual encounters will leave behind traces of novel informational polymers. In addition, physical contact, sexual or otherwise, might leave traces of blood, cells and even bacteria or viruses that could (in principle) be revealed by microscopy. It is important to note here that residual bacterial skin communities on touched objects have been matched to the originating individuals using forensic molecular analysis methods (N. Fierer et al. 2010). Perhaps completely unique bacteria and/or viruses could be cultured from suitable samples. It would not take long to confirm whether or not they are unique.
“Why are they doing that?”
The present hypotheses offer little insight into the overarching strategy and purpose behind abductions, harvesting of reproductive cells, fetal implantations/extractions described in The Threat and in other venues by Dr. Jacobs. The new assertion that entities “human in every way” are now emerging is particularly baffling. What were all the other phases about? If the final product was to be human with few genetic modifications, a complete blueprint was right there in the first misappropriated germ cells. Better, and far easier for the aliens, for the past ten years the entire genomic sequence has been available to anyone with a web browser.
Perhaps some introspection and analysis is now in order to assess the level of confidence one can reasonably hold that investigators have uncovered anything resembling reality. Much of the present abduction narrative hinges on the use of hypnotic regression to uncover memories. How reliable are those methods? The experience with The Innocence Project reveals how carefully one must weigh witness testimony and corroborate it with objective evidence whenever possible. Witness accounts and conclusions based solely on them can sometimes be completely and tragically wrong.
Where do we stand?
The math is stark; on our little home planet each organism harbors multiple uninvited invaders. In terms of sheer numbers, parasitism is the dominant life strategy on Earth. Further, examining the genes of ourselves and our kin, we find our genomes are frequently invaded, occupied and modified by viruses. These unauthorized changes are not always to our advantage. The idea of genetic colonization has a clear biological precedent.
Multiple approaches are now available for investigators seeking direct, objective genetic corroboration of the alien abduction accounts recovered primarily through hypnosis. These tools are powerful and precise. Despite the low cost requirements, genetic tools remain underutilized by abduction investigators. Perhaps a new generation of abduction researchers will attempt to challenge an explanatory narrative that has remained weakly scrutinized and little changed for decades. Hypotheses that are not confronted with evidence and evaluated in light of the results for their adequacy are little more than stories. When scientists fail to discover supporting evidence for a hypothesis, it is modified or abandoned outright. Allowing unsubstantiated ideas to persist untested or ignoring their inconsistencies against objective facts will ultimately impede all progress toward greater understanding. Creative destruction is the essential aspect of a healthy scientific process.
Comprehending the alien abduction mystery will demand investigators willing to utilize new tools and judge hypotheses objectively against the resulting data. Such efforts are long overdue.
Dark White. Jim Schnabel (1994), Hamish Hamilton
The Abduction Enigma. Kevin Randle, Russ Estes and William P. Cone (1999), Forge
The Abduction Enigma. Kevin Randle, Russ Estes and William P. Cone (1999), Forge
Disclosure – I declare that I have no competing financial interests or connections with 23andMe
As we have now seen, academia does not turn its back on ufology or even the controversial abduction phenomenon to nearly the extent we are commonly led to believe; ufology simply tends to reject the reviews it receives. As many suggest, a more constructive and productive approach might be to integrate such critical review into shaping the future methodologies and directions of abduction-research, more effectively serving the UFO community, its witnesses and strengthening its commitments to accuracy and accountability.
It is unreasonable to expect academics or even casually interested parties to accept extraordinary claims without direct evidence. It is simply irrational to make a leap, for example, from the fact people report encounters with beings to the suppositions of detailed physiological and neurological make-ups of such beings.
One could reasonably correlate tactics demonstrated by such researchers as Dr. David Jacobs with what is known in the profession of sales as 'negotiating the trade.' A skilled salesperson will employ the technique to lead a sales prospect into negotiating trade-in value, indirectly yet effectively establishing the sale itself is imminent without having ever actually clarified the product will be purchased.
Similarly, when we are drawn into considerations of elaborate and increasingly convoluted tales involving multiple stages of hybrid development, their reproductive procedures, their complexly deceptive intentions and so on, we are vulnerable to overlooking it has never been factually established the hybrids or their alleged alien creators even so much as exist. As negotiating the trade assumes the sale, negotiating supposed conditions of alien behavior assumes the alien.
There may very well be some type of currently unexplained phenomena at the heart of ufology and its accompanying claims of alien abduction. I do not know and I do not claim to be able to conclusively say.
I do feel confidently justified to say, however, an extremely large portion of the claims asserted as factual and the resulting abduction dogma, in reality, cannot be substantiated whatsoever. What this may very well indicate in select instances is that individuals legitimately experiencing paranormal circumstances are being fed inadequate and unreasonable explanations: square peg, round hole.
Perhaps there are indeed events of interest taking place, yet current prevailing explanations are simply incorrect. Such a possibility, if so, would of course go a long way towards accounting for why such current alleged explanations chronically remain outside the scope of verification: they are wrong.
If such perspectives make me a debunker, close-minded, in denial aliens are among us or any of the rest of the criticisms that have become standard fare, so be it. I say it makes me a realist and sincerely interested in and committed to the identification of legitimate, actual explanations.
I choose suspension of judgment pending confirmation of facts. I choose to verify the value of the product prior to negotiating the trade.
In the case of the core concepts set forth and asserted within the research of David Jacobs, I can currently identify no valid reasons to accept his interpretations and resulting claims as accurate. Given the extremely disproportionate amount of supposition to demonstrated fact contained within his work, it is my strong opinion there is no justification for accepting his alien-related information as factual as compared to recognizing it as, at best, speculation requiring much, much more competent investigation.
The Bizarre World of Doctor David Jacobs: An Interview and Review, Part One of Three
The Bizarre World of Doctor David Jacobs: An Interview and Review, Part Two of Three